The first option is to dimension from a projected or sketched line to the circle edge. First simply select the constrain feature (in this case the straight line) and then hover the mouse over the circle edge at which you can allocate a dimension distance. The icon next to the mouse will display a small "distance to circle edge" symbol rather than the usual distance symbol.
The second part of the video shows a circle within a circle option. Often like before a single click on the two circles will only off an option to dimension from the centre of each circle. However when selecting sketch edges hold the 'Alt' key while doing so and this will allow you to dimension from edge to edge of each circle.
Thanks once again to Peter Barker for this great tip.